Key Topics–Enzymes and Metabolism
Remember that the AP Biology exam tests you on the depth of your knowledge, not just your ability to recall facts. While we have provided brief definitions here, you will need to know these terms in even more depth for the AP Biology exam.
- Enzyme: An organic catalyst; typically, a protein
- Substrate: A substance that is acted upon by an enzyme
- Cofactor: An ion or molecule that helps to bind an enzyme to a substrate
- Coenzyme: An organic cofactor required for enzyme activity
- Vitamin: An organic nutrient required by organisms in small amounts to aid in proper metabolic processes; may be used as an enzymatic cofactor; because it is not synthesized, it must be obtained prefabricated in the diet
- pH: A symbol that denotes the relative concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution: the lower the pH, the more acidic a solution; the higher the pH, the more basic a solution; pH is equal to -log [H+]