Population and Migration Key Terms
Factors Affecting Population
- Demography: The study of population characteristics. Birth rate: The number of births per 1,000 people in the population.
- Death rate: The number of deaths per 1,000 people in the population. Population explosion: A crisis in which population growth occurs in countries ill- prepared to handle the growing numbers of people.
- Ecumene: The term for habitable land, which includes land with adequate water sources, relatively flat terrain, and available human food sources.
- Underpopulation: The surplus of necessary resources to meet the needs of the population of a defined area.
- Overpopulation: The lack of necessary resources to meet the needs of the population of a defined area.
- Carrying capacity: The ability of the land to sustain a certain number of people.
- Environmental degradation: The harming of the environment, which occurs when more and more humans inhabit a specific area and place a strain on the environmental resources.
Population Distribution and Density
- Arithmetic density: Divides the entire population of a country by the total land area to come up with a population density for the country as a whole.
- Physiologic density: A more accurate way to measure a country’s population density by only taking into account land that is used by humans.
Population and Growth
- Thomas Malthus: British reverend who concluded that population was growing at a faster rate than productivity in the late 1700s; coined the term overpopulation.
- Linear growth: Growth that occurs evenly across each unit over time. Exponential growth: Growth as a percentage of the total population.
- Neo-Malthusian: Those who are critical of the demographic transition model.
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