C: American Indian tribes believed that groups collectively possessed the lands to farm and hunt. In fact, their culture had no concept of the private ownership of land by individuals. In contrast, Europeans valued land as a possession owned by an individual or a family, and they regarded land as a source of wealth. It was convenient for Europeans to assume that nomadic tribes did not claim ownership of any land; (C) is correct. Europeans often took over native lands without eradicating their native population, making (A) incorrect. (B) is incorrect because trade networks were not relevant to enforcing the concept of land ownership. The Spanish encomienda system, in which the Spanish crown granted the colonists the right to use native labor to develop an area of land, was not operational in the territory of the Great Plains tribes, making (D) incorrect.
B: With the commercial relationship between English and American merchants intertwined before the Revolution, many English merchants were still owed money by Americans. The government agreed to consume these debts and pay them to the British in exchange for the British meeting the terms of the treaty. Choice (B) is thus correct.
C: The Seneca Falls Convention was called for women to assert their rights. They believed they should have equal rights, and many were fighting against the “cult of domesticity,” which declared that a woman’s place was in the home. Choice (C) is therefore correct.
B: Increasing tension over the possible expansion of slavery into the Kansas and Nebraska territories, due to the popular sovereignty provision in the Kansas-Nebraska Act, led to a major party realignment in the mid-1850s, including the creation of the Republican party. Choice (B) is correct.
D: While the Atlantic Charter established an idealized set of world goals, the decision to act on those goals involved complex questions of federal policy, public opinion, and the economic resources necessary to achieve public policy goals at home and abroad. (D) is correct. (A) and (B) are incorrect because neither address the international affairs of the United States. While the Atlantic Charter outlined Roosevelt and Churchill’s intention to ensure the liberty of men, (C) is incorrect because it did not directly lead to difficulty maintaining a balance between liberty and order in the United States.