0 0 admin http://wpapp.kaptest.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/kaplan_logo_purple_726-4.png admin2020-04-20 01:22:172020-09-11 20:39:58AP Psychology: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality Notes
AP Psychology: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality Notes
Key Terms: Motivation, Emotion, and Psychology
- Motivation: Processes that initiate, direct, and sustain behavior.
- Extrinsic motivation: Motivation driven by an external reward or punishment.
- Intrinsic motivation: Motivation driven by internal factors such as enjoyment and satisfaction.
- Approach-approach conflicts: Conflicts in which you must decide between desirable options.
- Avoidance-avoidance conflicts: Conflicts in which you must decide between undesirable options.
- Approach-avoidance conflicts: Conflicts in which you must decide between options with both desirable and undesirable features.
- Instincts: Inborn, fixed patterns of behavior that present in response to certain stimuli and are often species-specific.
- Instinct theory: A theory, based on the work of Darwin, stating that people perform certain behaviors due to instincts developed through generations of evolution.
- Drive: A state of unrest or irritation that energizes particular behaviors to alleviate it.
- Primary drives: Innate needs that are found in all humans and animals and are vital to survival, such as the needs for food, water, and warmth.
- Homeostasis: A dynamic state of equilibrium maintained by fulfilling drives and regulating internal conditions such as body temperature and blood pressure.
- Secondary drives: Needs, such as money and social approval, that are learned through experience.
- Drive-reduction theory: A theory stating that imbalances to your body’s internal environment generate drives that cause you to act in ways that restore homeostasis.
- Arousal: The physiological and psychological state of being active and alert, as reflected by factors like heart rate, muscle tone, brain activity, and blood pressure.
- Arousal theory: A theory stating that individuals are motivated to perform behaviors in order to maintain an optimal arousal level, typically a moderate level.
- Yerkes-Dodson law: A moderate level of arousal allows for optimal performance, though this optimal level can vary based on the individual and the nature of the task.
- Incentive theory: A theory of motivation stating that behaviors are motivated by the desire to attain rewards and avoid punishments.
- Need: An internal desire or deficiency that can motivate behavior.
- Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: A theory that classifies needs into five categories, ranked by priority from lowest to highest: physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization.
- Self-actualization: The last level in Maslow’s hierarchy, this need is met when individuals accept themselves and attain their full potential.
- Obesity: A medical condition characterized by a body mass index of greater than 30 and associated with various health problems, such as an increased risk of heart disease and diabetes.
- Sex drive: An example of a primary drive, it describes how motivated an individual is to partake in sexual behavior.
- Sexual orientation: A person’s identity in relation to the group or gender to which they are attracted; most commonly homosexual, heterosexual, bisexual, or asexual.