Preparing for the AP Psychology exam? Try some practice questions to gauge your readiness!
C: René Descartes, (C), is best known for believing that the mind and the body were separate substances, a position known as mind-body dualism. None of the other choices advocated this position
D: The dependent variable is the variable that is measured in the experiment. In this case, the dependent variable is dopamine levels, making (D) correct. (A) and (B) are incorrect because they are not variables, but rather the experimental group and control group, respectively. Amount of exercise is the independent variable, since it is manipulated in the experiment to determine its effects on dopamine levels; (C) is incorrect. (E) is also incorrect; the number of rats in the study represents the sample, not a variable.
C: Positive symptoms of schizophrenia include delusions, (A), disorganized speech, (B), catatonia, (D), and hallucinations, (E). Negative symptoms include decreased motivation, otherwise known as avolition, and disturbed affect. (C) is correct.
E: The capacity of short-term memory is approximately five to nine items, or seven plus or minus two. (E) is correct. The other choices do not represent the capacity demonstrated by several studies, most notably by Miller in 1956.
B: The Schachter-Singer theory states that emotional experience requires both the awareness and interpretation of your physiological arousal. Thus, (B) must be correct since the individual is experiencing an emotion that is consistent with both his physiological reaction to the dose of adrenaline and his interpretation of his environment. (A) is incorrect because a tranquilizer would cause a physiological reaction associated with calmness, not anger. (C) and (E) support the James-Lange theory of emotion, which says that emotional responses occur as a result of physiological arousal, making them incorrect. (D) would support the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion, which states that physiological arousal and emotional experience in response to a stimulus occur simultaneously, making it incorrect.