Key Terms: Testing and Individual Differences
What is Intelligence?
- Intelligence: The ability to solve problems, learn from experience, and use knowledge to adapt to novel situations.
- Aptitude tests: Tests designed to predict future performance in an ability.
- Achievement tests: Tests designed to assess current performance in an ability.
- Speed tests: Tests that assess quickness of problem solving by offering many questions in limited time.
- Power tests: Tests with questions of increasing difficulty, used to assess the highest-difficulty problem a person can solve.
- Verbal tests: Tests that use word problems to assess abilities.
- Abstract tests: Tests that use non-verbal measures to assess abilities.
- Factor analysis: A statistical method that identifies common causes of variance in different tests.
- G factor: The general intelligence factor, which accounts for a large amount of the variability in IQ scores.
- Crystallized intelligence: The ability to apply previously learned knowledge to solve a new task.
- Fluid intelligence: The ability to solve new tasks for which there is no prior knowledge.
- Savant syndrome: A condition in which someone shows exceptional ability in a single skill but limited general mental ability.
- Multiple intelligence theory: Gardner’s theory that proposes 8 different intelligences: musical-rhythmic, visual-spatial, verbal-linguistic, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic.
- Triarchic theory of intelligence: Sternberg’s theory that proposes three distinct intelligences (analytical, creative, and emotional), which work together to make up your overall intelligence.
- Analytical intelligence: The ability to solve traditional academic problems, as measured by early IQ tests.
- Creative intelligence: The ability to apply knowledge to new situations.
- Practical intelligence: The ability to apply life experiences to problem-solving tasks.
- Emotional intelligence: The ability to perceive, understand, manage, and correctly utilize emotion in everyday life.
- Mental age: Based on the average level of performance for a particular chronological age, mental age represents a child’s level of cognitive ability.
- Stanford-Binet IQ Test: An early IQ test created by Terman that originally measured intelligence by dividing mental age by chronological age and multiplying by 100.
- Intelligence Quotient (IQ): A standardized scale used to measure intellectual abilities.
- Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC): An IQ test that measures intelligence using both verbal and non-verbal tasks.
- Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS): The first commonly used intelligence test specifically designed for adults, which measures intelligence using both verbal and non-verbal tasks.
- Validity: A measure of the extent to which a test actually assesses what it claims.
- Reliability: A measure of consistency in test results.
- Content validity: The extent to which a test accurately assesses the entire range of abilities it is designed to measure.