0 0 admin http://wpapp.kaptest.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/kaplan_logo_purple_726-4.png admin2019-01-24 01:43:552020-09-11 20:41:49AP Psychology: Personality Notes
AP Psychology: Personality Notes
Key Takeaways: Personality
- Personality: The set of thoughts, feelings, traits, and behaviors that are characteristic of a person and consistent over time and in different situations.
- Type theory: A kind of personality theory that organizes people into different sorts of individuals.
- Trait theory: A kind of personality theory that lists classifiable characteristics that add together in different combinations and to different degrees to make a unique personality.
- Type-A: An ambitious and competitive personality, according to one type theory.
- Type-B: A laid-back and relaxed personality, according to one type theory.
- PEN model: Trait theory that focuses on placing people on a continuum for each of three personality traits: psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism.
- Psychoticism: PEN trait that corresponds to aggression and non-conformity.
- Extraversion: PEN trait that corresponds to thriving on external stimulation; also a member of the Big Five.
- Neuroticism: PEN trait that corresponds to anxiety and fight-or-flight stress response; also a member of the Big Five.
- Big Five: Trait theory that reorganizes and builds on the PEN traits, keeping extraversion and neuroticism, and adding openness to experience, conscientiousness, and agreeableness. Can be remembered using the mnemonic OCEAN.
- Openness to experience: Big Five trait that corresponds to curiosity vs. caution.
- Conscientiousness: Big Five trait that corresponds to organization vs. carelessness.
- Agreeableness: Big Five trait that corresponds to friendliness vs. detachment.
- Biopsychological approach: Theory that maintains that personality is heavily influenced by genes.
- Behaviorist approach: Theory that maintains that personality is heavily influenced by environment and experience.
- Social cognitive perspective: Theory that maintains personality both shapes and is shaped by environment.
- Reciprocal determinism: The idea from the social cognitive perspective that thoughts, feelings, beliefs, and environment all influence each other in determining a person’s actions in a given situation.
- Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic perspective: Personality theory that explains behaviors by looking at unconscious drives and feelings.
- Structural model: Divides the conscious and unconscious mind into the id, ego, and superego.